Skin complaints are any medical condition that affects the integumentary system – the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails. The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment.
Complaints of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states. While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location, morphology, cause, and so on.
Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by inspection and gathering information regarding the presenting skin lesion, including the location, symptoms, duration, arrangement, morphology and color. Some of disease also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data.
To simplify matters, skin changes can be divided into two large groups:
Neoplasms of the skin
Actinic Keratoses or Solar Keratoses: Is a pre-cancerous area of thick, scaly, or crusty skin. These growths are more common in fair-skinned people and those who are frequently in the sun.
Basal cell carcinoma: Is the most common type of skin cancer. It often appears as a painless raised area of skin, which may be shiny with small blood vessels running over it.
Benign keratosis: Is a non-cancerous skin tumor that originates from cells in the outer layer of the skin. Like liver spots, benign or seborrheic keratoses are seen more often as people age
Dermatofibroma: Is a non-cancerous hard solitary slow-growing rounded bumps that may appear in a variety of colours, usually brownish to tan.
Melanocytic nevi: These benign lesions is also known as nevocytic nevus, nevus-cell nevus and commonly as a mole. It is a type of melanocytic tumor that contains nevus cells.
Melanoma: Is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. Sometimes they develop from a mole with changes such as an increase in size, irregular edges, change in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown.
Vascular skin lesions: Is a benign vascular abnormality
Skin changes from other diseases
Allergy: Allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.
Inflammation: Is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection and can be either acute or chronic.
Autoimmune disease: Is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. The cause is generally unknown.